Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Detetors

New York City requires the installation and maintenance of smoke detectors and carbon monoxide detectors. Both property owners and tenants have responsibilities to ensure that all New Yorkers remain safe in their homes from the dangers of fire and carbon monoxide poisoning. Residential owners are required to ensure that tenants are provided with both carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke detectors (SD) that comply with the physical requirements of the Building Code.

The requirements immediately below regarding installation, replacement, and placement of the devices, as well as notifications and record-keeping requirement, apply to owners of all multiple dwellings, whether Class A Multiple Dwellings or Class B Multiple Dwellings. Additional owner requirements which apply only to specific classifications of buildings, including one-family or two-family homes which are occupied by a person or persons other than the owner of such unit or the owner's family, are also outlined below. Tenants' responsibilities are outlined on the Safety Conditions page. The charts below are intended for inforamtional purposes only and are not intended as legal advice. This information is not a complete or final statement of all the duties of owners and tenants with regard to laws and rules relating to carbon monoxide and smoke detectors in New York City.

All Multiple Dwellings

In all multiple dwellings, owners are required to: 
  • Provide and install at least one approved and operational CO alarm and SD within each dwelling unit.
  • Replace any CO alarm or SD periodically upon the expiration of its useful life or when it has been stolen, removed, is missing, or rendered inoperable before a new tenant moves in if the prior tenant did not replace it.
  • Ensure that the installed CO alarm is equipped with an end-of-life alarm.
  • Provide written information to at least one adult occupant of each dwelling unit regarding the testing and maintenance of detectors, including general information concerning carbon monoxide poisoning and what to do if an alarm goes off, that CO alarms have a useful life limitation, and that the owner has the responsibility to replace such alarms upon the expiration of such useful life. 
  • Keep, and provide upon request, records relating to the installation and maintenance of:
    • SD (provide to HPD): recordkeeping requirements are contained in Sections 12-01 and 12-03 of Title 28 of the Rules of the City of New York.
Owner Responsibilities for All Multiple Dwellings for Smoke Detectors and Carbon Monoxide Detectors
CO SD
Provide and install at least one approved and operational detecting device within each dwelling unit. Y Y

Replace any detector:

  • Periodically upon the expiration of its useful life.
  • Which has been stolen, removed, missing or rendered inoperable before new tenant moves in if prior tenant has not replaced it.
Y Y
Each installed detector must be equipped with an end-of-life alarm. Y N
When the detector is installed, provide written information to at least one adult occupant of each dwelling unit regarding the testing and maintenance of detectors, including general information concerning carbon monoxide poisoning and what to do if an alarm goes off, that CO alarms have a useful life limitation and that the owner has a duty to replace such alarms upon the expiration of such useful life. Y N

Keep, and provide upon request, records relating to the installation and maintenance of:

  • Smoke detectors (provide to HPD). Recordkeeping requirements are contained in Sections 12-01 and 12-03 of Title 28 of the Rules of the City of New York.
  • Carbon monoxide detectors (provide to HPD, DOB, DOHMH or FDNY). Recordkeeping requirements are contained in Sections 12-06 and 12-09 of Chapter 12 of Title 28 of the Rules of the City of New York.
Y Y
Never paint over detectors. Y Y

Owner Responsibilities for Class A Multiple Dwellings
CO SD
Install at least one detector within 15 feet of the primary entrance to each room lawfully used for sleeping purposes. Y Y
Post a notice in a common area informing occupants of the law's requirements. A sample notice approved by HPD and available on HPD’s website may be used. Y Y
Replace any detector within 30 days if it becomes inoperable within one year of installation due to a defect and no fault of the occupant. Y Y

Owner Responsibilities for Class B Multiple Dwellings
CO SD
Install at least one approved and operational detector within each dwelling unit if not using an allowable line-operated zoned detector system throughout the multiple dwelling Y Y
Instead of providing and installing at least one approved and operational detector within each unit, Class B buildings may provide and install a line-operated zoned smoke detector and/or carbon monoxide detector system throughout the multiple dwelling in accordance with rules and regulations promulgated by DOB. Y Y
Owner Responsibilities for Carbon Monoxide Detectors for One- & Two-Family Homes (non-owner occupied units)
CO
Install one or more approved and operational CO alarms in each dwelling unit, including at least one carbon monoxide detector within 15 feet of the primary entrance to each room lawfully used for sleeping purposes. Y
Provide a notice, in a form approved by HPD, informing occupants of carbon monoxide detector requirements. Y
Replace any carbon monoxide detector:
• Periodically upon the expiration of its useful life.
• Which has been stolen, removed, missing or rendered inoperable before a new occupant moves in if the prior occupant has not already replaced it.
Y
Each installed carbon monoxide detector must be equipped with an end-of-life alarm. Y
When the detector is installed, provide written information to at least one adult occupant of each dwelling unit regarding the testing and maintenance of detectors, including general information concerning carbon monoxide poisoning and what to do if an alarm goes off, that CO alarms have a useful life limitation and that the owner has a duty to replace such alarms upon the expiration of such useful life. Y
Keep, and provide upon request, records relating to the installation and maintenance of carbon monoxide detectors (provide to HPD, DOB, DOHMH or FDNY). Recordkeeping requirements are contained in Section 12-07 of Chapter 12 of Title 28 of the Rules of the City of New York. Y
Never paint over detectors. Y

Tenant Responsibilities Regarding Both Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Detectors, for all Detectors Installed:
Keep and maintain detector in good repair.
Replace a detector which has been stolen, removed, missing or rendered inoperable during occupancy.


If you live in a Class A building (apartments): Reimburse the building owner $25 for each smoke detector and carbon monoxide detector, or $50 for each joint smoke/carbon monoxide detector, that is newly installed or installed as a result of the occupant's failure to maintain the detector or where the detector has been lost or damaged by the occupant. The occupant has one year from the date of installation to pay for the detector.

If you live in a private dwelling (1-2 family home);
Reimburse the building owner $25 for each carbon monoxide detector that is newly installed or installed as a result of the occupant's failure to maintain the detector or where the detector has been lost or damaged by the occupant. The occupant has one year from the date of installation to make a payment.

If you live in a Class B building (transient use): No reimbursement to a property owner is required.

If you live in a Class B building (transient use): No reimbursement to a property owner is required.
Test all detectors at least once a month.
Replace batteries twice a year, in the spring and in the fall when clocks are changed for daylight savings time.
Immediately replace the batteries if the low battery warning sounds.
Never paint over detectors.


For copies of all notices referenced above and other notices required by law to be posted, see Signage, Filing and Notices.

Law and Rules: