Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection that spreads through vaginal, anal and oral sex.
If left untreated, gonorrhea can cause severe pain, infertility (inability to have children) and painful or swollen testicles. It can increase the risk of having a tubal (ectopic) pregnancy. Having gonorrhea also makes it more likely to get or spread HIV.
Most people with gonorrhea do not have symptoms. If symptoms occur, they can include:
Condoms and dental dams can prevent the spread of gonorrhea. Having multiple partners increases your risk of getting sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including gonorrhea.
Depending on the kinds of sex you have, your health care provider may test samples from your urine, cervix, penis, rectum or throat. Be honest with your doctor about the kinds of sex you have.
Gonorrhea is treated with two types of antibiotics — pills and an injection. The full treatment is needed to clear the infection. Take all the medication even if you feel better.
You should be retested after three to four months to make sure that you did not get infected again. Your provider may recommend that you get retested sooner than three months.
Your sex partner(s) also need to be treated so they do not develop serious health problems, re-infect you or pass the infection on to others. Talk to your sex partners from the previous two months about your infection so that they can be tested and treated.
All pregnant people should be tested for gonorrhea and other STIs, including HIV, as early as possible in pregnancy. Gonorrhea can cause miscarriage and premature labor. It can also cause eye infections in a newborn baby.