Metzitzah B’peh (Direct Oral Suctioning)

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How to Protect Your Baby Against Infection

When a baby is circumcised, some ritual Jewish circumcisers (mohelim) do a practice called metzitzah b’peh. Metzitzah b’peh is when the mohel uses his mouth to suck blood away from the baby’s circumcision wound as part of the circumcision ritual. Public health experts have found that metzitzah b’peh can put babies at risk of getting a harmful virus called herpes simplex virus type 1 or HSV-1. Some of these babies became seriously ill. Some developed brain damage, and others have died. There is no proven way to eliminate the risk of HSV-1 infection from direct oral suctioning.

How Metzitzah B’peh (Direct Oral Suctioning) Can Cause Infection

Public health experts have found that metzitzah b’peh can put babies at risk of getting a harmful virus called herpes simplex virus type 1 or HSV-1. Many adults carry HSV-1 in their bodies. They may have no symptoms or only mild symptoms, such as cold sores. Unlike adults, babies are too young to fight the virus. When a baby gets the virus, he could have brain damage, develop a lifelong disability or, in some cases, die.

A baby can get the virus when the mohel’s saliva gets on the baby’s skin and circumcision wound. If a mohel does metzitzah b’peh, even for just a moment, there is no way to avoid this risk. Even if the mohel doesn’t have cold sores near his mouth, he could still have the virus and not know it. Some mohelim rinse their mouths or take medicines before performing metzitzah b’peh. If the mohel has the virus, these steps do not make metzitzah b’peh safe for a baby.

Alternatives to Direct Oral Suctioning

Some religious authorities consider direct oral suctioning the only acceptable way to draw blood away from the circumcision cut. But other religious authorities within the Jewish faith approve different means. For example, sometimes a glass tube or a glass tube attached to a rubber bulb is used to suction blood in a way that does not include contact between the mohel’s mouth and the baby’s cut. Others use a sponge or a sterile gauze pad to suction blood. In contrast to direct oral suctioning, there is no evidence that any of these other practices cause HSV-1 infection.

Reducing the Risk

While mohelim may rinse their mouths with alcohol-containing mouthwash or even take antiviral medications, there is no proof that these strategies reduce the risk of HSV-1 infection associated with direct oral suctioning.

Because a baby’s immune system is not mature enough to fight infection, HSV-1 is a very serious risk for babies. If infected, babies will need to be hospitalized for at least two weeks of intravenous medicine to fight the infection. Even with treatment, the infection could result in lifelong disability, and babies could even die from the infection. Here are some ways to reduce the risk of HSV-1 associated with direct oral suctioning:

  • Talk with your baby’s doctor and metzitzah b’peh.
  • Before your hire the mohel for the bris, ask if he does metzitzah b’peh. Some parents say if they’d known that the mohel planned to do metzitzah b’peh, they would have asked him not to do it.
  • If you don’t want metzitzah b’peh, tell the mohel you do not want it. If you tell the mohel that you don’t want him to do metzitzah b’peh, he is expected to respect your wishes.

Taking Care of Your Baby During and After Circumcision

Circumcision involves cutting off skin and leaving an open wound. To protect the wound from infection, the circumcision should always be done under sterile conditions. The circumciser’s hands should be thoroughly washed and surgical gloves worn. The foreskin should be swabbed with an antiseptic solution. Sterile instruments should be used to cut the foreskin. Sterile gauze can be used to absorb bleeding, and a sterile dressing should be used to cover the incision site.

Regardless of how circumcision is performed, it is important to take good care of the circumcision wound until your baby fully heals. To prevent all types of infection, parents and other caregivers should apply a fresh gauze pad, dabbed with petroleum jelly or other ointment, on the penis during each diaper change. It is also important that parents and other caregivers frequently wash their hands with soap and water, especially before and after changing diapers or dressings for the wound.

For more information about the risk of HSV-1 infection in your baby, talk to your family doctor or pediatrician.