Criminal Court Judges

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Judge Gerianne Abriano

Judge Gerianne Abriano was appointed to the Criminal Court in June 2016.  She is a graduate of Hunter College and received her J.D. from New York Law School.  Prior to her appointment, Judge Abriano served with the Kings County District Attorney’s Office for 22 years holding various positions including Deputy Bureau Chief of the Brooklyn Treatment Court, and most recently, Bureau Chief of the Red Hook Community Justice Center.  Appointed June 2016.

Judge Efrain Alvarado

Judge Efrain Alvarado, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Criminal Court in August 1988. He graduated from the University College of Arts and Science, New York University and received his law degree from New York University School of Law. He was formerly the Administrative Judge for Criminal Matters of the Supreme Court in Bronx County from 2009 to 2013. Judge Alvarado previously served with the Bronx County District Attorney's Office for 12 years, holding various positions including Chief Assistant District Attorney. Reappointed January 2011.

Judge Tamiko Amaker

Judge Tamiko Amaker was appointed as a Criminal Court Judge in January 2010. She currently serves as the Supervising Judge of New York County Criminal Court since 2013. She received her undergraduate degree from Vassar College and her law degree from Fordham Law School. Judge Amaker spent her entire legal career in the Bronx County District Attorney's Office where she last served as Deputy Chief of the Child Abuse and Sex Crimes Bureau. Appointed January 2010. Reappointed January 2017.

Judge Stephen Antignani

Judge Stephen Antignani, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was appointed to the Criminal Court bench in January 2013.  He received his undergraduate degree from Boston College and his J.D. from Boston College Law School. He served with the Queens County District Attorney's Office and was the Deputy Chief of the Special Victims Bureau and Chief of the Public Corruption Bureau of the Nassau County District Attorney's Office. Reappointed January 2019.  (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court July 2012).

Judge Michelle Armstrong

Judge Michelle Armstrong was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in September 2011 and has been serving in Criminal Court. Since 2016, she has been the Supervising Judge of Queens County Criminal Court. She graduated from Hampton University and received her law degree from George Washington University, National Law Center. She served with the Kings County District Attorney's Office for 11 years holding various positions including Executive Assistant District Attorney. Subsequently, she was a solo practitioner specializing in criminal defense. Appointed December 2012. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court September 2011; reappointed January 2012).

Judge Frederick Arriaga

Judge Frederick Arriaga was elected to Civil Court in November 2007. He has been serving in Criminal Court since 2008 and was designated as an Acting Justice of the Supreme Court in January 2013. Judge Arriaga received his undergraduate degree from the University of Florida and his law degree from Brooklyn Law School. He began his career with South Brooklyn Legal Services before becoming a senior attorney for the Legal Aid Society's Brooklyn Office for the Aging.  He also served as Counsel to former Brooklyn Borough President Marty Markowitz.  Reappointed January 2018.

Judge Angela Badamo

Judge Angela Badamo was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in May 2017 and has been serving in Criminal Court. She is a graduate of SUNY Binghamton and received her J.D. from Washington & Lee University School of Law. Judge Badamo previously served with the Legal Aid Society's Criminal Appeals Bureau and subsequently joined the New York State Unified Court System as a Law Clerk in both Criminal and Civil Courts before serving as Assistant Deputy Counsel in the Office of the Chief Administrative Judge. Appointed January 2019. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court May 2017; reappointed January 2018).

Judge Mary Bejarano

Judge Mary Bejarano was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in May 2017 and has been serving in Criminal Court. She is a graduate of St. John's University and received her J.D. from Syracuse University College of Law. She began her legal career with the Queens County District Attorney's Office before becoming a criminal defense attorney in private practice.  Prior to her appointment, Judge Bejarano returned to public service as a prosecutor with the Kings County District Attorney's Office. Appointed January 2018. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court May 2017).

Judge Beth Beller

Judge Beth Beller was appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in January 2017 and has been serving in Criminal Court. She is a graduate of New York University and received her J.D. from St. John’s University School of Law. Prior to her appointment, Judge Beller served with the New York State Unified Court System for 11 years as a Principal Court Attorney in Supreme Court, Criminal Division, Bronx County. Prior to that, she served with the New York County District Attorney's Office for 17 years. Appointed January 2019. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court January 2017; reappointed January 2018).

Judge Miriam Best

Judge Miriam Best was first appointed to the bench as an Interim Civil Court Judge in 2003. She is a graduate of Yale University and received her J.D. from Yale Law School. She previously worked in the private sector and later served in the Kings County and New York County District Attorney's Offices, as well as in the United States Attorney's Office. Appointed October 2005. Reappointed January 2013. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court June 2003; reappointed January 2004 and January 2005).

Judge Denis Boyle

Judge Denis Boyle, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was appointed to the Criminal Court in August 1991. He received his undergraduate degree from Fordham University and his law degree from Fordham University School of Law. He served as a law clerk to a Supreme Court Judge, Criminal Term, for 13 years. Reappointed January 2002; January 2012.

Judge James Burke

Judge James Burke has been a Criminal Court Judge since 2001. Judge Burke, who was formerly a prosecutor with the New York County District Attorney's Office for twelve years, received his B.A. from Georgetown University and J.D. from Georgetown University Law Center. Reappointed December 2002; January 2013.

Judge Laurence Busching

Judge Laurence Busching is a graduate of Boston College and St. John's University School of Law. He has held executive positions with the New York County District Attorney's Office and several city agencies, including Chief of the City-Wide Family Court Division of the New York City Law Department, and most recently as First Deputy Criminal Justice Coordinator. Appointed December 2013.

Judge Alex Calabrese

Judge Alex Calabrese was first appointed to the Criminal Court in April 1997. He currently serves as an Acting Supreme Court Justice and has presided in the Red Hook Community Justice Center since April 2000. Judge Calabrese received his undergraduate degree from the University of Notre Dame and received his law degree from Fordham Law School. He began his legal career with the Legal Aid Society and subsequently served as a court attorney to the Honorable Leslie Crocker Snyder. Reappointed January 2007; January 2017.

Judge Heidi Cesare

Judge Heidi Cesare was appointed to the Criminal Court bench in January 2016.  She graduated from Columbia College and received her law degree from Boston University School of Law. She served with the Legal Aid Society in the Criminal Defense Division and with the Federal Defender Division, Eastern District of New York and most recently with the Federal Defenders of New York. Reappointed January 2019.  (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court February 2015).

Judge Phyllis Chu

Judge Phyllis Chu, was appointed to the Criminal Court in December 2016. She is a graduate of Cornell University and received her J.D. from Northeastern University School of Law. Prior to her appointment, Judge Chu served with the Kings County District Attorney' Office for 23 years holding various positions, including Senior Assistant District Attorney in the Homicide Bureau. Appointed December 2016.

Judge Danny Chun

Judge Danny Chun, currently an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Criminal Court in May 1999. He graduated from Johns Hopkins University and received his J.D. from Fordham University School of Law. He previously served for 12 years with the New York County District Attorney's Office. Reappointed January 2009; January 2019.

Judge Toni M. Cimino

Judge Toni M. Cimino was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in June 2016 and has been presiding in Criminal Court. She received her undergraduate degree from St. John’s University and her law degree from St. John’s University School of Law. Prior to her appointment, she was a criminal defense attorney in private practice, then served with the New York State Unified Court System for nearly 17 years including as a Court Attorney in Supreme Court, Criminal and Civil Term, and as a Court Attorney Referee. Appointed January 2017. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court June 2016).

Judge Abraham Clott

Judge Abraham Clott, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was appointed as a Criminal Court Judge in January 2007. He received his undergraduate degree from the University of Chicago and his law degree from New York University School of Law. Prior to his appointment to the bench, Judge Clott served with the Legal Aid Society in the Criminal Appeals Bureau and the Federal Defender Division. He was also an associate for a private firm as well as a law clerk to a federal judge. Reappointed January 2009; January 2019.  (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court January 2004; reappointed January 2005 and January 2006).

Judge Tara Collins

Judge Tara Collins was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in May 2017 and has been serving in Criminal Court. She is a graduate of SUNY Geneseo and received her J.D. from the Jacob D. Fuchsberg Touro Law Center.  Prior to her appointment, Judge Collins served with the Legal Aid Society's Criminal Defense Practice for the past 18 years as a Staff Attorney and as a Mental Health Attorney.  Appointed January 2018. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court May 2017).

Judge Miriam Cyrulnik

Judge Miriam Cyrulnik was first appointed to the bench in June 2003 as an Interim Civil Court Judge, and was appointed to the Criminal Court in December 2003. She is a graduate of Brooklyn College and received her J.D. from Brooklyn Law School. She formerly served as a law clerk for more than twenty years. Appointed December 2003; reappointed December 2005 and December 2015. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court June 2003).

Judge Claudia Daniels-DePeyster

Judge Claudia Daniels-DePeyster was appointed to the Criminal Court in April 2015. She graduated from SUNY at Buffalo and received her law degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Law. Prior to her appointment, Judge Daniels-DePeyster was a solo practitioner with a concentration in criminal and civil law, an attorney with the Bureau of Investigations and Trials of the New York City Fire Department, and last served with the New York City Police Department as an Assistant Deputy Commissioner of Trials for 11 years. Reappointed January 2018.

Judge Abena Darkeh

Judge Abena Darkeh was appointed to the Criminal Court in February 2015. She graduated from Georgetown University and received her law degree from Hofstra University School of Law. Prior to her appointment, Judge Darkeh served with the Kings County District Attorney's Office and with the New York State Office of Court Administration as a Court Attorney/Citywide Domestic Violence Coordinator for New York City Criminal Court and as Assistant Deputy Counsel in the Office of Policy and Planning. She most recently served as Deputy Commissioner for Regional Affairs and Federal Programs for the New York State Division of Human Rights. Appointed February 2015.

Judge Charlotte E. Davidson

Judge Charlotte E. Davidson was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in June 2016 and has been presiding in Criminal Court. She is a graduate of Harvard University and received her J.D. from Columbia Law School. Prior to her appointment, Judge Davidson served with the New York State Unified Court System for 13 years holding various positions including as Counsel to the former Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals Jonathan Lippman. Prior to that, she was an associate with a private firm. Appointed January 2017. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court June 2016).

Judge Bruna DiBiase

Judge Bruna DiBiase was first appointed to the Criminal Court in December 2013. She received her undergraduate degree from Queens College and her law degree from Hofstra University School of Law. She worked for the Legal Aid Society and as a solo practitioner for almost 14 years prior to serving in various capacities with the New York State Unified Court System including as Chief of Staff to the Deputy Chief Administrative Judge for Policy and Planning. Appointed December 2013; reappointed January 2015.

Judge Marguerite Dougherty

Judge Marguerite Dougherty was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in February 2015 and had been serving in Criminal Court. She graduated from St. Francis College and received her law degree from Brooklyn Law School. Judge Dougherty served as a Court Officer and Court Clerk in Criminal Court and Supreme Court for 18 years. Upon graduation from law school, she was a law clerk to a federal judge and a litigation associate for private firms. Most recently, she served as Vice President and Executive Director/Assistant General Counsel for JPMorgan Chase & Co.  Appointed January 2016. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court February 2015).

Judge Laura Drager

Judge Laura Drager, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in May 1987. She was subsequently appointed to the Criminal Court in November 1987. She received her undergraduate degree from the University of Rochester and her law degree from Columbia University School of Law. She was previously an associate for a private law firm, and worked with the New York County and Kings County District Attorney's Office, having last served as Chief of the Rackets Bureau. Reappointed January 2002; January 2012.

Judge Althea Drysdale

Judge Althea Drysdale was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in February 2015 and had been serving in Criminal Court. She received her undergraduate degree from John Jay College of Criminal Justice and her law degree from Syracuse University College of Law. Prior to her appointment, Judge Drysdale served as a Staff Attorney for the Legal Aid Society, Criminal Defense Division, and most recently served as a Senior Trial Attorney for the New York County Defender Services. Appointed January 2016.  (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court February 2015).

Judge Scott Dunn

Judge Scott Dunn was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in May 2017 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He is a graduate of Cornell University and received his J.D. from Fordham University School of Law. Prior to his appointment, Judge Dunn started his career with the Immigration and Naturalization Service as Assistant General Counsel for 10 years. He subsequently served for 23 years as an Assistant U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of New York as the Chief of Immigration Litigation. Appointed January 2018. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court May 2017).

Judge Keshia Espinal

Judge Keshia Espinal was appointed to the Criminal Court in May 2017. She is a graduate of St. Joseph’s College and received her J.D. from Western New England University School of Law. Prior to her appointment, Judge Espinal served with the Queens County District Attorney’s Office for 16 years in several bureaus, most recently as a Supervising Assistant District Attorney for the Domestic Violence Bureau. Appointed May 2017.

Judge Ralph Fabrizio

Judge Ralph Fabrizio, currently serving as an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was appointed to the Criminal Court in December 2001. He received his bachelor's degree from Fairfield University, his master's degree from John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and his law degree from St. John's University School of Law. He served with the New York County District Attorney's Office for 17 years where he held various positions including Deputy Chief of a Trial Bureau. Reappointed January 2008; January 2018.

Judge Curtis Farber

Judge Curtis Farber was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in July 2012 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He received his undergraduate degree from George Washington University and his law degree from Boston University School of Law. Prior to his appointment, he served with the Bronx County District Attorney's Office and was a solo criminal defense practitioner for 20 years. Appointed December 2012. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court July 2012).

Judge Thomas Farber

Judge Thomas Farber, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was appointed to the Criminal Court in December 1995. He received his undergraduate degree from the University of California and his law degree from Harvard Law School. Judge Farber began his legal career as an associate with a private firm and subsequently served with the New York County District Attorney's Office. Reappointed January 2002; January 2012.

Judge David Frey

Judge David Frey was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in January 2017 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He is a graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and received his J.D. from Brooklyn Law School. Prior to his appointment, Judge Frey served for 19 years with the Richmond County District Attorney's Office, where he last served as Bureau Chief of Investigations. Appointed January 2018. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court January 2017).

Judge William Garnett

Judge William Garnett, currently an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Criminal Court in August 1991. He received his undergraduate degree from Fordham University, his law degree from Brooklyn Law School, and his L.L.M. from New York University School of Law. Judge Garnett was previously with the Richmond County District Attorney's Office where he last served as Supreme Court Bureau Chief, as well as the Kings County District Attorney's Office where he last served as Senior Trial Assistant of the Homicide Bureau. Reappointed January 2010.

Judge Michael Gary

Judge Michael Gary, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Criminal Court in February 1987. He received his undergraduate degree from the College of Holy Cross and his law degree from New York University School of Law. He was previously with the Kings County District Attorney's Office for nearly 12 years, having last served as Supervisor and Bureau Chief. Reappointed January 2011.

Judge Lenora Gerald

Judge Lenora Gerald, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was appointed to the Criminal Court bench initially in December 2003 and again in January 2009.  Prior to her appointment to the bench, she served as the Principal Law Clerk to Justice Alfred Lerner of the Appellate Division, First Department. Judge Gerald received a B.A. from St. John's University and J.D. from St. John's University School of Law. Reappointed January 2019.  (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court December 2001 and September 2008; reappointed January 2002 and January 2003). (Appointed to the Supreme Court by former Governor Spitzer June 2007).

Judge Jeffrey Gershuny

Judge Jeffrey Gershuny was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in March 2018 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He is a graduate of SUNY Binghamton University and received his J.D. from Hofstra University Law School. Judge Gershuny most recently served as Chief Counsel to the Administrative Judge of New York City Criminal Court. Prior to that, he was a Supervising Court Attorney in Criminal Court, New York County for seven years. Appointed April 2019. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court March 2018; reappointed January 2019).

Judge Karen Gopee

Judge Karen Gopee was appointed to the Criminal Court bench in December 2015.  She is a graduate of SUNY Binghamton and received her J.D. from St. John’s University School of Law.  Judge Gopee began her career with the Kings County District Attorney’s Office, and has served with the Red Hook Community Justice Center as Principal Court Attorney. Appointed December 2015.

Judge George Grasso

Judge George Grasso was first appointed to the Criminal Court in January 2010. He became Supervising Judge of Arraignments for New York City Criminal Courts in 2012. Currently he serves as the Supervising Judge of Bronx County Criminal Court since 2016. He received his undergraduate degree from York College and his law degree from St. John's University School of Law. Judge Grasso served with the New York City Police Department for almost 30 years, having started as a patrol officer while attending law school. He quickly rose through the ranks within various offices and served as Deputy Commissioner for Legal Matters and last served as First Deputy Police Commissioner. Appointed January 2010; reappointed January 2015.

Judge Ethan Greenberg

Judge Ethan Greenberg, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Criminal Court in October 1997. He received his undergraduate degree from Yale College and his law degree from Columbia Law School. Judge Greenberg began his legal career with the New York County District Attorney's Office and subsequently went into private practice working at several law firms as a litigation associate, then partner. Reappointed January 2011.

Judge Eugene Guarino

Judge Eugene Guarino was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in June 2016 and has been presiding in Criminal Court. He received his undergraduate degree from Fordham University and his J.D. from St. John’s University School of Law. He formerly served with the Queens County District Attorney’s Office and was in private practice. Prior to his appointment, Judge Guarino was Principal Court Attorney in Queens County Criminal and Supreme Courts. Appointed January 2017. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court June 2016).

Judge Joseph Gubbay

Judge Joseph Gubbay, currently an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Criminal Court in April 1999. He graduated from Tufts University and received his J.D. from New York University School of Law. He previously served as the Executive Director of the Mayor's Commission to Combat Police Corruption, and as an Inspector General for the New York City Department of Investigation. Reappointed January 2009; January 2019.

Judge William Harrington

Judge William Harrington has been a Criminal Court Judge since 2001. Judge Harrington was formerly a prosecutor with the Kings County District Attorney's Office and Principal Law Clerk to Justice Albert Tomei of Kings County Supreme Court. He received a B.A. from Tufts University and J.D. from George Washington University. Reappointed November 2002; December 2012.

Judge Danielle L. Hartman

Judge Danielle L. Hartman was appointed to the Criminal Court in May 2017. She is a graduate of Emory University and received her J.D. from the George Washington University Law School. Prior to her appointment, Judge Hartman served with the Queens County District Attorney’s Office for eight years and most recently served as Principal Court Attorney in the Supreme Court, Criminal Term, Queens County. Appointed May 2017.

Judge Michael Hartofilis

Judge Michael Hartofilis was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in February 2018 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He is a graduate of New York University and received his J.D from Temple University School of Law. Judge Hartofilis was with the Queens County District Attorney’s Office for eight years before starting his own criminal defense practice, which he maintained for the last 22 years. Appointed January 2019. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court February 2018).

Judge John T. Hecht

Judge John T. Hecht, currently an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was appointed as a Criminal Court Judge in September 2011. He received his undergraduate degree from Yale College and his J.D. from Boston University School of Law. Prior to his appointment, he served as a Principal Court Attorney in Supreme Court, was a Supervising Attorney for the Legal Aid Society, was a litigation associate for private firms, and clerked for a federal judge. Reappointed January 2018. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court January 2011).

Judge Gilbert Hong

Judge Gilbert Hong was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in July 2007 and had been serving in Criminal Court. He was subsequently appointed to the Criminal Court in September 2008. Judge Hong received his undergraduate degree from Columbia College and his J.D. from Cornell Law School. He was previously with the New York County District Attorney's Office and served as a Deputy Bureau Chief in New York City's Office of the Special Narcotics Prosecutor. Appointed September 2008; reappointed January 2011. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court July 2007).

Judge Steven Hornstein

Judge Steven Hornstein was appointed to the Criminal Court in January 2013. He graduated from S.U.N.Y. at Albany and received his law degree from New York Law School. He served with the Bronx County District Attorney's Office and was a criminal defense attorney in private practice for over 20 years. Appointed January 2013; reappointed December 2015.

Judge Jerry Iannece

Judge Jerry Iannece was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in May 2017 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He is a graduate of New York University and received his J.D. from St. John's University School of Law. Prior to his appointment, Judge Iannece began his legal career as a prosecutor with the Bronx County District Attorney's Office and subsequently went into private practice, maintaining a general practice partnership, including criminal defense work, for 29 years. Appointed January 2018. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court May 2017).

Judge Melissa Jackson

Judge Melissa Jackson, currently an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was appointed to the Criminal Court in June 2003. She served as the Supervising Judge of New York County Criminal Court from 2008 to 2012 and as the Administrative Judge of New York City Criminal Court from 2014 to 2017. She graduated from the University of Pennsylvania and received her law degree from Fordham University School of Law. She formerly served with the Kings County District Attorney's Office for nearly 22 years where she rose to become Deputy District Attorney of the Major Frauds/Rackets Bureau. Reappointed November 2007; November 2017.

Judge Laura Johnson

Judge Laura Johnson was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in January 2013 and had been serving in Criminal Court. She received her undergraduate degree from Barnard College and her J.D. from Columbia University School of Law. Prior to her appointment, she served with the New York County District Attorney's Office and the Legal Aid Society including as Attorney-in-Charge of the Criminal Appeals Bureau. She also served as an Assistant Solicitor General, and clerked for the Chief Judge of the New York State Court of Appeals. Appointed January 2016. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court January 2013; reappointed January 2014 and January 2015).

Judge Diane Kiesel

Judge Diane Kiesel, currently an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Criminal Court in April 1999. She graduated from Douglass College, received a master's degree from American University, and received her J.D. from Catholic University. She previously served as the Deputy Chief of the Child Abuse Bureau for the New York County District Attorney's Office and was a law clerk to a federal judge. Reappointed January 2009; January 2019.

Judge David J. Kirschner

Judge David J. Kirschner was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in June 2016 and has been presiding in Criminal Court. He is a graduate of Florida State University and received his law degree from Hofstra University School of Law. Prior to his appointment, Judge Kirschner served with the Bronx County District Attorney’s Office for 17 ½ years, was in private practice, and was a Principal Court Attorney in the Bronx County Supreme Court. Appointed January 2017. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court June 2016).

Judge Michael Kitsis

Judge Michael Kitsis was appointed to the Criminal Court in December 2016. He is a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania and received his J.D. from the University of Virginia, School of Law. Prior to his appointment, Judge Kitsis served with the New York County District Attorney’s Office for 33 years in various positions including Bureau Chief of the Frauds Bureau and Senior Investigative Counsel of Major Economic Crimes. Appointed December 2016.  Reappointed January 2019.

Judge Elisa Koenderman was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in July 2007. She has been serving in Criminal Court. Judge Koenderman is a graduate of Barnard College and received her J.D. from Boston University School of Law. Judge Koenderman was formerly with the Bronx County District Attorney's Office for 23 years where she last served as the Chief of the Child Abuse/Sex Crimes Bureau. Appointed January 2008; reappointed December 2015. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court July 2007).

Judge Barry Kron

Judge Barry Kron was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in August 1988. He was subsequently appointed to the Criminal Court in January 1992. He is currently an Acting Supreme Court Justice. Judge Kron received his undergraduate degree from Lehman College and graduated from Columbia Law School. Most of his legal career was spent serving with the Supreme Court, Appellate Division, Second Department as a law secretary. He was also an associate with a law firm. Reappointed January 1997; January 2007; January 2017.

Judge John Latella, Jr.

Judge John Latella, Jr. is an Acting Supreme Court Justice who was first appointed to the bench as a Criminal Court Judge in February 1987. He is a graduate of Princeton University and received his J.D. from Yale Law School. Judge Latella previously served in the New York County District Attorney's Office, the United States Attorney's Office, and clerked for a federal court of appeals judge as well as a federal district court judge. Reappointed December 2005 and December 2015.

Judge Donald Leo

Judge Donald Leo, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was appointed to the Criminal Court bench in December 2015.  Judge Leo is a graduate of New York University and Brooklyn Law School.  Prior to his appointment, he served with the New York County District Attorney's Office for over a decade before becoming Deputy Bureau Chief of the Sex Offender Management Bureau with the New York State Attorney General's Office.  Appointed December 2015.  Reappointed January 2019.

Judge Judith Lieb

Judge Judith Lieb, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in July 1999. She was subsequently appointed to the Criminal Court in December 2004. She graduated from Yale University and received her law degree from Michigan Law School. She was a litigation associate for a private firm and served with the United States Attorney's Office, Eastern District of New York. Appointed December 2004; reappointed January 2012. (Formerly reappointed to the Interim Civil Court January 2002; January 2003; January 2004).

Judge Gene Lopez

Judge Gene Lopez, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Criminal Court in December 2001. He graduated from American University and received his J.D. from Brooklyn Law School. Judge Lopez formerly served as the Executive Director of the New York City Civilian Complaint Review Board, Inspector General for the New York City Housing Authority, and Administrative Hearing Judge for the Department of Sanitation. He also worked for the Kings County District Attorney's Office. Reappointed January 2009; January 2019.

Judge Robert Mandelbaum

Judge Robert Mandelbaum was appointed as a Criminal Court Judge in January 2008, and is currently an Acting Supreme Court Justice. Judge Mandelbaum received his undergraduate degree from Brown University and his law degree from New York University School of Law. He served as former Chief Judge Judith Kaye's law clerk, was with the New York County Defenders Services, the Legal Aid Society's Criminal Defense Division as a criminal defense attorney and Acting Director of Training. Judge Mandelbaum was also previously with New York University's School of Law as an Acting Assistant Professor of Clinical Law and as a Research Instructor in their Lawyering Program. Reappointed January 2018. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court in November 2006; reappointed in January 2007).

Judge Margaret Martin

Judge Margaret Martin, was appointed to the Criminal Court in January 2017. She is a graduate of Boston University and received her J.D. from the University of Denver, Sturm College of Law. Prior to her appointment, Judge Martin was an Assistant Deputy Counsel in the Office of Court Administration's Office of Policy and Planning. Prior to this, she served with the Legal Aid Society over 21 years, including as Senior Staff Attorney in the Capital Division. Reappointed January 2018.

Judge Marisol Martinez Alonso

Judge Marisol Martinez Alonso was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in February 2018 and has been serving in Criminal Court. She is a graduate of John Jay College of Criminal Justice and received her J.D. from the New York Law School. Judge Martinez Alonso, prior to her appointment, was most recently Deputy Chief of a Trial Bureau at the Bronx County District Attorney’s Office, where she had served for the past 16 ½ years in various bureaus. Appointed January 2019. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court February 2018).

Judge Mario Mattei

Judge Mario Mattei was appointed as a Criminal Court Judge in January 2010. He received his undergraduate degree from the State University of New York at Cortland and his law degree from New York Law School. He served with the Richmond County District Attorney's Office for nearly 25 years, having last served as Chief of the Investigations Bureau. Reappointed January 2018.

Judge Joseph McCormack

Judge Joseph McCormack was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in May 2017 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He is a graduate of SUNY Albany and received his J.D. from St. John's University School of Law. Prior to his appointment, Judge McCormack served for 31 years with the Bronx County District Attorney's Office, where he last served as Chief of the Trial Division/Vehicular Crimes Bureau. Appointed January 2018. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court May 2017).

Judge Kevin McGrath

Judge Kevin McGrath was appointed to the Criminal Court bench in January 2009.  He has been serving as the Supervising Judge of New York County Criminal Court since March 2018.  Judge McGrath graduated from the Catholic University of America and received his J.D. from Fordham University School of Law. For 15 years, he worked for the Kings County District Attorney's Office, where he last served as the Bureau Chief of the Criminal Court Bureau. Appointed January 2009. Reappointed January 2019.  (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court September 2008).

Judge Suzanne Melendez

Judge Suzanne Melendez, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Criminal Court in June 1995. She received her undergraduate degree from the University of Chicago and her J.D. from Duke University School of Law. She spent her entire legal career with the Kings County District Attorney's Office where she last served as Deputy Bureau Chief of the Sex Crimes Bureau. Reappointed January 2011.

Judge Felicia Mennin

Judge Felicia Mennin was appointed to the Criminal Court in February 2008. She graduated from Princeton University and received her law degree from Columbia University Law School. Judge Mennin practiced litigation at several private firms, served with the New York County District Attorney's Office, and held executive positions at the New York City Department of Investigation and the New York City Conflicts of Interest Board. Appointed February 2008; reappointed January 2012.

Judge Guy Mitchell

Judge Guy Mitchell was appointed to the Criminal Court in February 2015. He is currently the Presiding Judge in the Midtown Community Court since 2016. He graduated from SUNY at Brockport and received his law degree from Ohio Northern School of Law. Judge Mitchell was a former prosecutor with the Bronx County District Attorney’s Office, Chief of the Criminal Division in the United States Virgin Islands Department of Justice, and was most recently an Assistant Attorney General in Charge of the Harlem/Bronx Regional Office. Appointed February 2015.

Judge Salvatore Modica

Judge Salvatore Modica, currently an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Criminal Court in December 2001. He graduated from the University of Arizona and received his law degree from St. John's University School of Law. Judge Modica was a former Assistant District Attorney in Queens and a Principal Court Attorney in Supreme Court, Bronx County. Reappointed January 2006 and January 2010.

Judge Gia Morris

Judge Gia Morris was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in September 2011 and has been serving in Criminal Court. She received her undergraduate degree from Ithaca College and her law degree from Cardozo School of Law. She was an associate for private law firms, a former prosecutor in Kings County, and held executive positions in city and state investigative agencies. Appointed January 2013. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court September 2011; reappointed January 2012).

Judge Herbert Moses

Judge Herbert Moses was appointed to the Criminal Court in January 2017. He is a graduate of John Jay College of Criminal Justice and received his law degree from CUNY School of Law. Judge Moses served with the Kings County District Attorney's Office for five years. Subsequently, he became a solo practitioner specializing in criminal defense for 20 years. Reappointed January 2018.

Judge Martin Murphy

Judge Martin Murphy, currently serving as an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Family Court in April 1997 but has presided in Criminal Court and the Criminal Term of Supreme Court. He formerly served as the Supervising Judge of New York County Criminal Court from 2000 to 2005. He graduated from Seton Hall University and received his law degree from Brooklyn Law School. Prior to his appointment, Judge Murphy spent 18 years with the Legal Aid Society where he last served as an Attorney-in-Charge, and prior to that, he served with the New York City Criminal Justice Coordinator's Office. Reappointed November 2006. Appointed to Criminal Court November 2016. Reappointed January 2017.

Judge Edwin Novillo

Judge Edwin Novillo was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in February 2018 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He is a graduate of John Jay College of Criminal Justice and received his J.D. from Touro College, Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center. Judge Novillo has served with the Legal Aid Society, Criminal Defense Practice for 14 ½ years, most recently as a Senior Staff Attorney in Queens County. Appointed January 2019. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court February 2018).

Judge Kathryn Paek

Judge Kathryn Paek was appointed as a Criminal Court Judge in February 2015. She received her undergraduate degree from New York University and her law degree from Northwestern University School of Law. Judge Paek was a Staff Attorney for the Legal Aid Society in Nassau County and a Staff Attorney in the criminal defense division and civil division, immigration unit in Kings County. She most recently served as Principal Court Attorney in Supreme Court, Criminal Term, Kings County and as Chief of Staff in the Office of Policy and Planning for the New York State Office of Court Administration. Appointed February 2015.

Judge Adam Perlmutter

Judge Adam Perlmutter was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in March 2018 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He is a graduate of Columbia University and received his J.D. from the University of Wisconsin Law School. Judge Perlmutter has been practicing criminal law for 22 years as a prosecutor with the Queens County District Attorney’s Office, a solo practitioner, and a partner in various firms, most recently at Perlmutter & McGuinness, PC. Appointed January 2019. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court March 2018).

Judge Kim Petersen

Judge Kim Petersen was appointed to the Criminal Court in December 2016. She is a graduate of Queens College and received her J.D. from Brooklyn Law School. Prior to her appointment, Judge Petersen served with the Richmond County District Attorney’s Office as Bureau Chief of Criminal Court. She began her legal career with the Queens County District Attorney’s Office and subsequently served as Principal Court Attorney in the Appellate Division, First Department, Departmental Disciplinary Committee, as well as, in Supreme Court, Criminal Term, Queens County. Appointed December 2016.

Judge Laurie Peterson

Judge Laurie Peterson was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in January 2013 and had been serving in Criminal Court. She graduated from Brandeis University and received her J.D. from Boston University School of Law. She served with the Legal Aid Society as a Supervising Attorney, worked for Queens Law Associates, and was a Principal Court Attorney to a Supervising Judge of the Criminal Court. Appointed January 2015. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court December 2013; reappointed January 2014).

Judge Ruth Pickholz

Judge Ruth Pickholz, currently an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Criminal Court in December 1990. She received her undergraduate degree from Hunter College and her law degree from Chicago-Kent College of Law. Judge Pickholz previously served with the Legal Aid Society's Criminal Defense Division and with the Mayor's Office as an Acting Criminal Justice Coordinator. Reappointed January 2010.

Judge Bahaati E. Pitt

Judge Bahaati E. Pitt was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in June 2016 and has been presiding in Criminal Court. She is a graduate of Morgan State University and received her law degree from the State University of New York at Buffalo. She formerly served with The Legal Aid Society's Criminal Defense Division for seven years and was a Court Attorney in Bronx County Family and Civil Courts. Prior to her appointment, Judge Pitt served as a Principal Law Clerk in Bronx County Supreme Court, Civil and Criminal Divisions. Appointed January 2017. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court June 2016).

Judge Joanne Quinones

Judge Joanne Quinones was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in September 2010 and has been serving in Criminal Court. She graduated from Brown University and received her J.D. from Fordham University School of Law. Prior to her appointment, she served as a Court Attorney in Supreme, Criminal, and Civil Court. She was also a Staff Attorney with the Legal Aid Society's Criminal Defense Division. Appointed December 2010. Reappointed January 2013. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court September 2010).

Judge Raja Rajeswari

Judge Raja Rajeswari was appointed as a Criminal Court Judge in April 2015. She graduated from the College of Staten Island and received her law degree from Brooklyn Law School. Prior to her appointment, Judge Rajeswari worked with the Richmond County District Attorney’s Office her entire career in several bureaus including Criminal Court, Narcotics, Supreme Court, and the Sex Crimes Special Victims Bureau where she last served as Deputy Chief. Appointed April 2015.  Reappointed January 2019.

Judge Christopher Robles

Judge Christopher Robles was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in June 2017 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He was in private practice for nearly 18 years with litigation experience in family law, civil practice, and appellate practice.  Judge Robles is a graduate of St. John's University and received his J.D. at CUNY School of Law.  Appointed January 2018. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court June 2017).

Judge Julio Rodriguez

Judge Julio Rodriguez was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in January 2013 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He graduated from John Jay College of Criminal Justice and Temple School of Law. He served with the New York County District Attorney's Office, and held executive positions with the New York City Department of Investigation and the Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings. Appointed December 2013. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court January 2013).

Judge Raymond Rodriguez

Judge Raymond Rodriguez was appointed to the Criminal Court bench in December 2013. He received his undergraduate degree from St. John's University and his law degree from Widener University School of Law. Prior to his appointment, he served with the Richmond County District Attorney's Office and was a solo practitioner for almost nine years specializing in criminal defense, family law, and civil litigation. Reappointed January 2018. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court January 2013).

Judge Jeffrey Rosenblueth

Judge Jeffrey Rosenblueth was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in May 2017 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He is a graduate of New York University and received his J.D. from the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law. Prior to his appointment, Judge Rosenblueth was with the Queens County District Attorney’s Office before becoming a criminal defense attorney in private practice. He also previously served with the New York State Unified Court System as a Principal Law Clerk in Supreme Court, Criminal Term, Queens County. Appointed January 2019 (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court May 2017; reappointed January 2018).

Judge Neil Ross

Judge Neil Ross, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Criminal Court in April 1999. He formerly served as the Deputy Supervising Judge of New York County Criminal Court. Judge Ross graduated from Dickinson College and received his law degree from Syracuse University College of Law. He previously served with the United States Attorney's Office and the Kings County District Attorney's Office. Reappointed January 2009.  Reappointed January 2019.

Judge Ann Scherzer

Judge Ann Scherzer was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in January 2012 and has been serving in Criminal Court. She graduated from the University of Michigan and received her law degree from Boston University School of Law. Prior to her appointment, she served with the New York County District Attorney's Office, the New York City Law Department, and the Appellate Division's Departmental Disciplinary Committee. Appointed January 2013. Reappointed January 2019. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court January 2012).

Judge Matthew Sciarrino, Jr.

Judge Matthew Sciarrino, Jr. was first appointed to the bench as an Interim Civil Court Judge in January 2005. He is a graduate of St. John's University and received his J.D. from St. John's University School of Law. He previously clerked for the Honorable Joseph Maltese for ten years. Appointed December 2005; reappointed December 2015. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court January 2005).

Judge Toko Serita

Judge Toko Serita was appointed to the Criminal Court in October 2005. She is a graduate of Vassar College and received her J.D. from City University of New York Law School. Prior to her appointment, Judge Serita served as the Executive Assistant to the Administrative Judge of Queens County Supreme Court, and has worked in a variety of capacities in the New York State Unified Court System since 1999. She also served with the Legal Aid Society, Criminal Appeals Bureau, from 1989 through 1999. Appointed October 2005. Reappointed January 2007;January 2009 January 2019.

Judge Ruth Shillingford

Judge Ruth Shillingford was first appointed to the bench as an Interim Civil Court Judge in June 2003. She is a graduate of Lincoln University and received her J.D. from Georgetown University Law Center. She previously served as an Assistant Deputy Chief Court Attorney of the Appellate Division, First Department. She also served in the New York County District Attorney's Office and was in private practice. Appointed December 2005; reappointed December 2015. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court June 2003; reappointed January 2004 and January 2005).

Judge Steven Statsinger

Judge Steven Statsinger was appointed to the Criminal Court in January 2013. He received his undergraduate degree from Brown University and his law degree from Columbia University School of Law. Prior to his appointment, he served with the Legal Aid Society in the Criminal Appeals Bureau and the Federal Defender Division, and as a Supervisor and Training Director for the Federal Defenders of New York. Appointed January 2013. Reappointed January 2014.

Judge Deborah Stevens Modica

Judge Deborah Stevens Modica, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Criminal Court in 1997. She formerly served as the Supervising Judge of Queens County Criminal Court from 2002 to 2015. She graduated from Thomas More College and received her J.D. from Fordham University School of Law. Judge Modica served as a Bureau Chief at the Queens County District Attorney's Office and as an Executive Assistant District Attorney at the Kings County District Attorney's Office. Reappointed January 1999; January 2009; January 2019.

Judge Ann Thompson

Judge Ann Thompson was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in February 2018 and has been serving in Criminal Court. She is a graduate of Dartmouth College and received her J.D. from Harvard Law School. Prior to her appointment, Judge Thompson was the Bureau Chief of the Special Victims Bureau at the Richmond County District Attorney’s Office, where she served for the past ten and a half years in both the Special Victims Bureau and Criminal Court Bureau. Prior to that, she worked for two private firms. Appointed January 2019. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court February 2018).

Judge Robert Stolz

Judge Robert Stolz, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in June 1995. He was subsequently appointed to the Criminal Court in December 2002. He graduated from Columbia College and received his law degree from Fordham University School of Law. Judge Stolz worked for private law firms and served as a federal prosecutor for the United States Attorney's Office, Eastern District of New York. Appointed December 2002; reappointed January 2012. (Formerly reappointed to the Interim Civil Court January 2002).

Judge Charles Troia

Judge Charles Troia was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in September 2010 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He received his undergraduate degree from St. John's University and his J.D. from St. John's University Law School. Prior to his appointment, he served as a Principal Court Attorney in Supreme Court, he was a senior trial attorney for a law firm, and he worked in the New York City Law Department's Tort Division. Appointed September 2011. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court September 2010; reappointed January 2011).

Judge Jane Tully

Judge Jane Tully, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was appointed to the Criminal Court in January 2013. She graduated from New York University and Columbia University School of Law. Prior to her appointment, she worked for the New York City Law Department, and served as a Deputy Chief with the New York County District Attorney's Office and Bureau Chief with the Office of the Special Narcotics Prosecutor. Appointed January 2013.  Reappointed January 2019.

Judge Frances Wang

Judge Frances Wang was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in January 2017 and has been serving in Criminal Court. She is a graduate of St. John's University and received her J.D. from Hofstra University School of Law.  Prior to her appointment Judge Wang served with the New York State Unified Court System for six years as a Principal Court Attorney in Supreme Court, Criminal Term, Bronx County. Prior to that, she served with the Bronx County District Attorney's Office. Appointed January 2018. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court January 2017).

Judge Laura Ward

Judge Laura Ward, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was first appointed to the Criminal Court in 1997. She formerly worked for the United States Attorney's Office, New York State Attorney General's Office, the Organized Crime Strike Force and a private law firm. Judge Ward earned her B.A. from Vassar College and J.D. from Fordham Law School. Reappointed December 2003 and January 2014.

Judge Elizabeth N. Warin

Judge Elizabeth N. Warin was appointed to the Criminal Court bench in December 2015.  Prior to her appointment, she served as a Law Clerk with the United States District Court, Southern District of New York, then served with The Legal Aid Society and was Of Counsel to two firms specializing in criminal defense. Judge Warin received her undergraduate degree from Yale University and her law degree from New York University School of Law.  Appointed December 2015.

Judge Joanne Watters

Judge Joanne Watters was appointed to the Criminal Court bench in December 2015. Judge Watters received her undergraduate degree from Fordham University and her law degree from Pace University School of Law. She formerly worked with the Bronx County District Attorney's Office, Department Advocate's Office with the New York City Police Department and was Court Attorney to the Supervising Judge of Kings County Criminal Court. Appointed December 2015.

Judge Cori Weston

Judge Cori Weston was appointed to the Criminal Court in June 2016.  She received her undergraduate degree from Hofstra University and her J.D. from Fordham University School of Law. She formerly served as an attorney with the New York County Defender Services for nearly 19 years and The Legal Aid Society, Criminal Defense Division for seven years. Appointed June 2016.

Judge Michael Yavinsky

Judge Michael Yavinsky was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in January 2009 and has been serving in the Criminal Court. Since 2012, he has been the Supervising Judge of Kings County Criminal Court. He received his undergraduate degree from Connecticut College and his law degree from Northeastern University School of Law. Judge Yavinsky was formerly with the Legal Aid Society's Criminal Defense Division, Queens Law Associates, and the New York State Unified Court System where he last served as Chief Court Attorney for New York City Criminal Court. Appointed January 2010.  Reappointed January 2019.  (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court January 2009).

Judge Alvin Yearwood

Judge Alvin Yearwood, an Acting Supreme Court Justice, was appointed to the Criminal Court in January 2003. He is a graduate of Lafayette College and received his J.D. from Boston University School of Law. He spent most of his career at the Bronx County District Attorney's Office. Appointed January 2003.  Reappointed December 2005; January 2009; January 2019.

Judge Stephanie Zaro

Judge Stephanie Zaro was appointed to the Criminal Court in February 2008. She is a graduate of John Jay University and received her law degree from Cardozo School of Law. Judge Zaro began her career by serving in the Inspector General's Office of the New York City Department of Finance and then served with the Queens County District Attorney's Office. She also practiced criminal and civil law at a private firm. For the past nearly 20 years, she has been a criminal defense attorney. Appointed February 2008; reappointed January 2010.

Judge Jeffrey Zimmerman

Judge Jeffrey Zimmerman was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in February 2018 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He is a graduate of Dartmouth College and received his J.D. from Columbia University Law School. Judge Zimmerman most recently served as Deputy Director of Crime Strategies and Public Safety at the Mayor’s Office of Criminal Justice. He also served as an Assistant District Attorney in New York County as well as Chief of the General Crimes Unit at the United States Attorney’s Office. Prior to this, Judge Zimmerman spent 17 years at Time Warner Cable where he last served as Senior Vice President and Deputy General Counsel. Appointed January 2019. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court February 2018).

Judge John Zoll

Judge John Zoll was first appointed as an Interim Civil Court Judge in September 2010 and has been serving in Criminal Court. He received his undergraduate degree from Hofstra University and his law degree from Hofstra University School of Law. Prior to his appointment, he served as a Principal Court Attorney and Supervising Court Attorney in Criminal Court, he was a solo practitioner, and a criminal defense attorney for Queens Law Associates and the Legal Aid Society. Appointed December 2011. Reappointed December 2012. (Formerly appointed to the Interim Civil Court September 2010; reappointed January 2011).